Islamic identity of Rûm (Rome) and Romans

Some Hadiths of the Prophet (ﷺ) mention that the Muslims will make peace with the Romans and jointly fight another common enemy of both. Such Hadiths have never raised any controversy in the past but some mischief makers today misuse them and change the true identity of Romans. Let us take a look at the Hadiths and how they are misused:

اعْدُدْ سِتًّا بَيْنَ يَدَىِ السَّاعَةِ، مَوْتِي، ثُمَّ فَتْحُ بَيْتِ الْمَقْدِسِ، ثُمَّ مُوتَانٌ يَأْخُذُ فِيكُمْ كَقُعَاصِ الْغَنَمِ، ثُمَّ اسْتِفَاضَةُ الْمَالِ حَتَّى يُعْطَى الرَّجُلُ مِائَةَ دِينَارٍ فَيَظَلُّ سَاخِطًا، ثُمَّ فِتْنَةٌ لاَ يَبْقَى بَيْتٌ مِنَ الْعَرَبِ إِلاَّ دَخَلَتْهُ، ثُمَّ هُدْنَةٌ تَكُونُ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَ بَنِي الأَصْفَرِ فَيَغْدِرُونَ، فَيَأْتُونَكُمْ تَحْتَ ثَمَانِينَ غَايَةً، تَحْتَ كُلِّ غَايَةٍ اثْنَا عَشَرَ أَلْفًا

Count six signs that indicate the approach of the Hour: my death, the conquest of Jerusalem, a plague that will afflict you (and kill you in great numbers) as the plague that afflicts sheep, the increase of wealth to such an extent that even if one is given one hundred Dinars, he will not be satisfied; then an affliction which no Arab house will escape, and then a truce between you and Bani Al-Asfar (Offspring of yellow i.e. the Romans/Byzantines) who will betray you and attack you under eighty flags. Under each flag will be twelve thousand soldiers. [Sahih al-Bukhari 3176]

تَكُونُ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَ بَنِي الأَصْفَرِ هُدْنَةٌ فَيَغْدِرُونَ بِكُمْ فَيَسِيرُونَ إِلَيْكُمْ فِي ثَمَانِينَ غَايَةً تَحْتَ كُلِّ غَايَةٍ اثْنَا عَشَرَ أَلْفًا

There will be a treaty between you and Banu Asfar (The Romans), but they will betray you and will march against you with eighty banners, under each of which there will be twelve thousand troops. [Sunan Ibn Majah 4095]

سَتُصَالِحُونَ الرُّومَ صُلْحًا آمِنًا فَتَغْزُونَ أَنْتُمْ وَهُمْ عَدُوًّا مِنْ وَرَائِكُمْ فَتُنْصَرُونَ وَتَغْنَمُونَ وَتَسْلَمُونَ ثُمَّ تَرْجِعُونَ حَتَّى تَنْزِلُوا بِمَرْجٍ ذِي تُلُولٍ فَيَرْفَعُ رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّصْرَانِيَّةِ الصَّلِيبَ فَيَقُولُ غَلَبَ الصَّلِيبُ فَيَغْضَبُ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ فَيَدُقُّهُ فَعِنْدَ ذَلِكَ تَغْدِرُ الرُّومُ وَتَجْمَعُ لِلْمَلْحَمَةِ

You will make a secure peace with the Romans, then you and they will fight an enemy behind you, and you will be victorious, take booty, and be safe. You will then return and alight in a meadow with mounds and one of the Christians will raise the cross and say: The cross has conquered. One of the Muslims will become angry and smash it, and the Romans will act treacherously and prepare for the battle. [Sunan Abi Dawud 4292]

It has been made to show that the Byzantines were and are different to the Romans and that they are two separate groups of people ethnically, racially, physically, and geographically. Although a simple Google search should be sufficient to refute this blunder (or deliberate trickery), we shall look at this claim in some detail. It is claimed by mischievous people that Russians of today are the Romans mentioned in the Hadith and that Muslims must make peace with them. It is pertinent to note that those who do appeal to make peace with Russia quote this Hadith half-way where they portray the Russians, supposedly Romans, as friends of Muslims and the part that there would be a battle of Muslims with them after the peace treaty is altogether ignored and not narrated to the naive listeners. They are simply in awe at a day like a year, a day like a month, a day like a week narration mistreated and misapplied. The West is called Gog and Magog and an enemy with which there should never be any peace and that anyone who tries to make peace with them goes against Q.5:51 and whoever does it either becomes one a disbeliever or goes closer to disbelief.[1][2]

To make it very brief, Romans during the time of the Prophet (ﷺ) and the Sahaba were what we call now Europeans and from today’s standards, the entire group of Romans would include Europeans, North Americans, Australians, and New Zealanders. In short, what one now calls the West. This identity of Romans is elaborated further below.

The Muslims and Romans would jointly fight an enemy behind and hence we learn that there would be a common enemy of both.

The Hadiths also mention that afterwards one of the Christians will raise the cross and say: The cross has conquered after which the Romans will come with close to a million people. Forget that in today’s time, overzealous Christians are mainly found in the West as opposed to Russia and also forget that the West can easily raise an army of close to a million while Russia may not be able to do so, further forget that 80 flags may refer to numerous states of Europe and North America, we shall look at the identity of these groups in further detail.[3]

أي المدينتين تفتح أولا قسطنطينية أو رومية؟ فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لا بل مدينة هرقل أولا ـ يعني القسطنطينية.

“which of the two cities will be conquered first – Constantinople or Rome?” and the Prophet (ﷺ) replied: “The city of Heraclius (Constantinople) will be conquered first”.[4]

Read these pieces for further relations of Constantinople to Rome (behind it) [*][*][*]. Read further from ‘Series of events’ here.

More on identity of Romans

Hugh N. Kennedy, in ‘The Great Arab Conquests: How the Spread of Islam Changed the World We Live In’, states on pg. 7-8:

Historians are accustomed to talking about the Byzantine Empire to describe the Eastern Roman Empire. It is a convenient term to designate the Christian, Greek-speaking and –writing empire of the seventh and eighth centuries. It is also completely out of touch with the language of the people at the time. No one at that or any other time ever described themselves in normal life as ‘Byzantines’. They themselves knew that they were Romans and they called themselves as such, though they used the Greek term Romaioi to do so. Their Muslim opponents also knew them as Rum, or Romans, and this term was often extended to include the Latin Christian inhabitants of North Africa and Spain. Despite the violence it does to the language of the sources, I have, with some reluctance, accepted the general scholarly usage and refer to Byzantines and the Byzantine Empire throughout.

In ‘Who are the Romans? The Definition of Bilad al-Rum (Land of the Romans) in Medieval Islamic Geographies’ by Koray Durak, we find the following on pg. 286:

The region in question (i.e. Rome) is the territory that lay to the north and west of the Islamic Near East and North Africa; it corresponds roughly to today’s Europe and Turkey.[5]


Although such a piece should never have been written in the first place as the claim that ‘Russians are Romans’ cannot be worth taking more than a joke, it still had to be addressed due to some television, YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter preachers in today’s time using Hadiths to portray misapplied political analysis as divine guidance.

From the above, we can safely conclude the following:

  • Romans today are Europeans and their descendants. Their descendants today include North Americans (USA and Canada) along with the Australian continent (Australia and New Zealand). In other words, to narrow it to lesser words, we can say that Rome, in Islamic terminology, refers to what we know today as the West.
  • Personal friendship or even coequal or necessary alliance with the West is not frowned upon in Islam. What Islam discourages is taking others as protectors and encourages the Muslims to be their own protectors while relying upon the Lord.
  • Muslims and the West, as we know today, will (or may already) have a peace treaty (or treaties) and will jointly fight their enemies who, from our times, can safely be called Russia.
  • Anyone who says that Muslims must ally with Russia or that alliance with the West is disbelief is on a mission to mislead the Muslims and nothing else.
  • Qur’an, Hadith, history, and all other facts certify to this.

Indeed, Allah knows best.

References and footnotes:

[1] To say that Israel or the West are the Gog and Magog is a blatant lie on Islamic text. Read clarifications regarding Yajuj and Majuj here. Q.21:97 has been misused by a lot of people who have come up with weird theories. ‘And there is prohibition upon [the people of] a city which We have destroyed‘. People destroyed are those who have perished and these perished, killed, dead people will not return back to life ‘Until when Gog and Magog have been opened‘. This could mean one of two things 1) Dead people would come back to life when Yajuj and Majuj appear, or 2) Dead people would come back to life after the Day of Judgment which would occur immediately after the emergence and attack of Yajuj and Majuj. Hadiths, statements of Sahaba, Tafaseer, and even logic and common sense dictate that option two is the right option. Allah knows best.

As for Q.5:51, the verse tells the believers to not take Jews and Christians as protecting allies. Protecting ally is one where the Muslim relies solely on them for protection. Allying with them for a cause without taking them as protectors is not what the verse forbids. Moreover, if anyone does make such alliance or friendship with them, even then to say that this act is disbelief and such a person disbeliever would be incorrect to do so.

[2] There are some who say the joint war of Muslims and Romans against a common enemy has already happened i.e. Afghan war against the Soviets but the Hadith mentions other signs and hence that war is not the one mentioned by the Hadith. Also, Russians, in general, are not religious people at all whereas Romans (US/Europe) still have religious Christians in them. To say that communist Russia are the Christian Romans is nothing less than pure ignorance of history, general knowledge and Hadiths. If one relates these Hadiths to modern times, why would Russia fight over religion?

[3] There is a weak narration which mentions: ‘Indeed, you will fight the children of the yellow (ones) i.e. Romans, and those who will come after you will fight them (crusades) until the best of Islam’s adherents… will go out to them (end time wars)…‘. During the crusades, the biggest group of Romans included the British, French and Germans. All evidences, both authentic and weak, prove the correct identity of the Romans.

[4] Al-Hakim, Al-Mustadrak, (4/598) no. 8662. Also, see Musnad Ahmad (2/176) no. 6645,  Sunan Darimi (1/430) no. 503, and As-Silsilah as-Sahihah, vol. 1

[5] In Rome, New Rome, Baghdad: Pathways of Late Antiquity, Aziz al-Azmeh states that Rome according to Muslims was generally confined to geographical Europe. Rome’s internal evolution, had shifted to the East, and specifically to the Fertile Crescent and beyond. He further states: Even Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons, was an Easterner, and wrote in Greek, which had been the original liturgical language of the Church in Rome until it was slowly, and in the fullness of time, replaced by Latin.


38 thoughts on “Islamic identity of Rûm (Rome) and Romans

  1. Very insightful. Hadith like this used to confuse me because I thought the Roman/Byzantine empires were gone and thus rendered the prophecies questionable. JZKAllah Khair!!!!

  2. Pingback: Is there any prophecy of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad? | Qur'anic misconceptions addressed

  3. Hi brother I have a question about a Hadith regarding the identity of the ‘Romans’.

    Mustaurid al-Qurashi reported: I heard Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) as saying: The Last Hour would come (when) the Romans would form a majority amongst people. ‘Amr said to him (Mustaurid Qurashi): See what you are saying? He said: I say what I heard from Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him). Thereupon he said: If you say that, it is a fact for they have four qualities. They have the patience to undergo a trial and immediately restore themselves to sanity after trouble and attack again after flight. They (have the quality) of being good to the destitute and the orphans, to the weak and, fifthly, the good quality in them is that they put resistance against the oppression of kings.

    In regards to the romans is this another word for Europe in general? The Europeans do seem to be good the poor and weak with their welfare system. Europeans do seem to be good to the filthy as they are quite sexually liberal. Also their rulers seem to not have too much power because of democracy.
    On the flip side Europeans may not be romans because a lot of Europeans are non religious, some even identify as having no religion, atheist, agnostic etc. instead of Christian.
    If Europeans are indeed romans does this mean the great battle will be fought between Europeans who practice secularism as opposed to Muslims who practice sharia law?

    • Romans are Europeans and their descendants (i.e. North Americans, Australians); in other words the modern name for the Roman Empire would be the West.

      True, they are not religious in general but Western world is fast changing with the far right coming in power in some countries while they are a very close second in others. The left leaning politicians and parties have a very close competition with the right and the right may eventually win over them before they assemble for the big war.

    • Romans also can be Muslims, Christians or atheists..Please include that in Medival era some Mongols like Kerait Toghrul Khan was Nestorian Christian. Now some Arabs are Christians, some Chinese are Christians and etc., but they are not Romans. Romans are Europeans – Parliament and People of Europe and their descendants.

    • Romans being the majority kind of makes it obvious that it is referring to the Europeans who colonized most of the world and their descendants are found in large numbers on every continent today.

      • A little bit of further analysis is required on this. The largest ethnic group in the world are Han Chinese. One would need to see whether the white European ‘race’ has ever been in majority. I believe no and believe that this is a future event and the European ‘race’ will become the majority some day before the end of the world.

      • Majority does not necessarily have to mean numerical superiority. It can refer to weight as in they will hold most influence. It’s true that there are more Chinese/East Asians on earth than there are Europeans. The possibility of them possessing numerical superiority in the near future seems pretty far-fetched to me. They whine about “white genocide”/declining birth rates all the time, but then again, their recently passed anti abortion laws and resurgent appreciation for traditional values may not be a coincidence. Or it could happen if others simply die off somehow.

      • It is about numerical superiority. Weight and influence does not make sense or fit into any place at all. Wars will take place and events will occur to cause them to be the majority of the world population.

    • Al-Mustawrid reported: He said in front of Amr ibn al-‘As that he heard the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, say, “The Hour will be established while the Romans are the majority of people.” Amr said, “Be careful what you say.” He said, “I have said what I heard from the Messenger of Allah.” Amr said, “If the Prophet said that, indeed, there are four good qualities in them: they are the most forbearing of people in tribulation, they are the quickest to recover after a calamity, they are the most eager to return after a retreat, and they are good to the poor, the orphan, and the vulnerable. Their fifth quality is good and beautiful: they are the best at stopping the oppression of their kings.” Source: Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim 2898
      Romans are a race of people, the descendant of Esau who was the twine brother of Jacob (Peace be upon him) they are the European and they expanded in to America Canada Australia etc. It doesnt matter whether they are pagan or Muslim or Christian. In the hadis we learn that Roman will make a truce with the Arabs against their common enemy Iran and Russia but after the victory the Romans will break the truce and attack the Arabs which will be a big battle called Al-Malhama al Kubra. The Arabs will be few in numbers after the battle because Out of a family of one hundred, only one man will survive.

  4. I don’t mind with this writing, it’s just a matter of opinion. One thing though. You said:

    “Also, Russians, in general, are not religious people at all whereas Romans (US/Europe) still have religious Christians in them. To say that communist Russia are the Christian Romans is nothing less than pure ignorance of history, general knowledge and Hadiths.”

    This is wrong. Russia is not communist anymore. Since the era of his leadership, Putin has managed to bring back Orthodox Christianity as important values among the Russians. You can actually find more atheists in the US or Europe. Especially Europe. Russia today is actually more religious than the US and Europe.

    • Romans are a race. They are the descendant of Esau the twine brother of Jacob (Peace be upon him). They are also called Banu Al Asfer which means reddish yellow people. In the Bible they are called Edom i.e. red.
      Among many other races there are white people but that doesn’t make them Roman. The Byzentine Roman followed Greek Orthodox Christianity where as the Western Roman in Roman followed Catholicism. Both of them are from the same race. Thus any white following orthodox Christianity don’t automatically make them Roman because Roman are a race of people with a set of DNA which is not same as the Russian Turkic/Mongolian Chine white. Why do you think that to be a Roman one must follow orthodox Christianity?
      And the most vital point is that the truce will happen between the Romans and the Arabs. So if you look which country have alliance with Saudi Arabia then you find they are USA and EU. Both Arab and Roman will jointly attack Iran and Russia and possibly China too

    • Why a Roman needs to be religious to be a Roman. Romans are a race and Russian are a race too. Russians are Turkic/Mongolian so they can be 100% pure orthodox praying 24 hours but that will not change their DNA. They will remain Turk. Similarly the Arabs are generally Muslims but there are many Arabs who are orthodox Christians. Do those orthodox Arab Christians become Roman? The Children of Israel are the descendant of Jacob (Peace be upon him) now if one of them start following orthodox Christiniaty then will you call him a Roman? Romans are the half brother of the Arabs and the Children of Israel. Prophet Isaac (Peace be upon him) had twine sons. One of them was Jacob whose other name was Israel and his other son’s name was Esau who didnt get the prophethood. Romans are the descendant of Esau. They are white blond but there are white blond people in other races too but they can not be roman because they are from a different race. Putin can pray 24 hours a day in his church but he is a Turkic origin so he is not a Roman.

    • hi hassan edom means red in hebrew, correct. Red is the colour of socialism.
      USA/Western europe has fought against socialism for centuries.We see it again right now with the conservatives v the globalists.You need to do some research as to who controls these world government entities…fascism and communism come from the same roots of marx and engels, who come from the same roots of the same authors(now look where they went to school for the real edom).
      If you want some real fun then try the sounds and symbols game. do you really think the UN is a benevolent organisation when it’s logo is the world in a set of crosshairs surrounded by a roman laurel leaf “tiara” like a caesar would wear? US totally wants out of the UN, as does the UK people(not the government).
      Prophecy according to jesus,says daniel is the real deal…what did he see?
      1) Anglo america…goes independent
      2)Russia re-annexes 3 baltic states
      3)Franco german EU splits to 4 governships
      4)Everybody else joins the UN,in a ten region confederacy.

      It was predicted at the nearing of the end (psalm 83) an alliance of edom and ishmael…doesn’t end well for edom.
      Then the gog magog war, no disputing the particpants here….iran, turkey,sudan,the southern “stans” of russia,libya…again doesn’t end well. funny the UK is so cosy with saudi arabia, they are sheba and dedan of some kind of alliance was already foretold.

      • Sounds and symblos game 2.0, if the logo of the council on foreign relations.
        Who says the four horsemen haven’t mounted up?
        ….rider,white horse, bow in hand. “everywhere” is the inscription in latin…nasty,nasty people in that organisation.

    • You’re right about Russian society being more religious than Europe. Not sure why the article claimed they’re irreligious or communist.

      • They are ‘claiming’ a new identity where they say that the West is a degenerate society which has left religious and traditional values whereas they are the defenders of religious and traditional values. However, the Far Right is found in most or all of Western countries and they have a strong quantity as well. On the other hand, if you visit Russia or nearby Slavic countries, you’ll see that they are not generally religious and suffer from inferiority complex and want to imitate the West really badly (mostly the bad part of Western culture). You just have to see the inner dynamics of these people – in the West the Christians talk about adultery/fornication, modesty, church, attendance and a whole lot of topics which are mostly absent from Russian ‘Christian’ discussions. They may wear the cross more than others but other than that, they are not as practicing Christians as those who identify as Christians in the West (esp. the US).

  5. Please bear in mind that the word Byzantine was a later word which was coined and used by historians to describe the eastern part of the Roman Empire. Prior, there was only one Roman Empire.

    At the time of the Prophet, the western part was non existent as it has fallen earlier to Germanic tribes, and later,the Vikings.

    So, it is 100% correct to say that the word Roman used in the Quran and the Hadith refer exclusively to the Byzantine whose capital was at Constantinople. When it felled to the Muslims in 1453 AD, the administration and the Church were taken to Russia by the Romanov family.

    Furthermore, the Quran never talk about Western Christians but Nazarenes, referring to Syrian based Christians whose creed was the official creed of the Byzantine at that time.

    • Thanks for the comment. Yes, the eastern part of the Roman Empire came to be known as the Byzantine Empire and the passage from Hugh N. Kennedy is there in the piece above to support this as well. Unfortunately, some people are deceived into thinking that the Byzantium was outside of Europe. No mental gymnastics can transfer Rome from Europe to Russia which some have been desperately attempting to do. Playing the creed card is one way that has been used to push forward the Russian agenda but a detailed study of it also informs us that the forced Russian connection there does not stand. The Roman Empire was a geographical area and not a religious one and bringing in the orthodox card does not help. Even if one goes with it, the area of this later Roman Empire would still be Eastern Europe and Greece and NOT Russia. I hope you had read the piece above 🙂

      I thank you for elaborating on this; however, this part of your comment is problematic:

      ‘… it is 100% correct to say that the word Roman used in the Quran and the Hadith refer exclusively to the Byzantine whose capital was at Constantinople.’

      The Ayah of ghulibat ar-Rum (30:2) is about what the Roman Empire was at that time which is what you state to be comprising of Constantinople. However, the Prophet (ﷺ) and the Sahaba defined Rome and Romans as what we now consider the West and the Westerners. See Sahih Muslim 968 where the French city of Rodus is considered a part of Rome; also see Sahih Muslim 2913 a. There are many more and I’ve shared a link at the end for further study.

      Moreover, the Muslim scholars have always understood Rome to be what is now Europe and to argue against it is actually claiming that the scholars were unaware of what the Prophet (ﷺ) meant.

      Furthermore, the supremacist and ‘Right’ groups in the West and the ‘deus vult’ groups want to ‘Make Constantinople Great Again’. The crusades mainly comprised people from the western Roman Empire and their desire to take revenge of the initial Arab conquests was thriving not just then but also when the French and British took over the Middle East about a century ago. The Westerners know their history. Even furthermore, the European Union welcomes these territories of the eastern Roman Empire in its domain as a natural extension and the Turkish desire to enter the EU further translates the natural thought process of everyone – all the lands from Turkey and to its north and west would fall under the Islamic and natural definition of Rome.

      The weird and crazy theories by Imran Nazar Hossein are so silly that it makes one wonder how anyone can believe them! I know he’s not that naive and he is working on a task assigned to him but those who actually believe all this need to be educated. A simple Wikipedia search for ‘Roman Empire’, ‘Byzantine Empire’, ‘Eastern Orthodox Church’ and similar terms should be more than sufficient. A quick look at the map of the Byzantine Empire should also be more than sufficient on its own. A brief look at the battles of the Muslims in North Africa against the Romans should be more than sufficient as well to see the locations where the Romans came from, where they retreated, where they gathered and so on. Just read the stories of and about Amr b. al-As; there is so much more that can be said and I honestly feel very surprised and shake my head in disbelief that someone can come and argue that Russia now is what once was the Roman Empire!

      I recommend this book:

      • I have compiled the hadis I have come across regarding the Arab Roman truce. There are some opinion of weak hadis , daef hadis etc. But I compiled them with an open mind as the Muslim scholars in the past include these hadis in their book. We may all see the unfolding event and verify how accurate they are. They are as follows:
        Al-Nawawi said, “Al-Shafi’i and others said that if non Muslims have a good view of Muslims and there is a need for their help, their help may be sought; otherwise, it is discouraged.” Source: Sharḥ al-Nawawī ‘alá Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim 1871

        Hassan ibn ‘Atiyah reported: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “You will make a secure peace with the Romans, and together you will fight an enemy from behind you.” (Sunan Abī Dāwūd)

        Zu Mukhammar said I heard the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) say, ” You will make a Hudna (Truce Agreement) with the Romans, and together you and them will invade an enemy (located) behind you. You will be victorious, take much booty, and you will leave. Then, you will camp on a hilly pasture. When one of the Romans will approach (the Muslim army), raise a cross and says “The Cross has won”, one of the Muslims will get angry and take off the Cross. Then, the Romans will trick (bluff or deceive) you, and gather (prepare) for the Malhama (armageddon). They will gather an army against you and come against you with eighty banners, each banner followed by 10,000 (or 12,000) men.” (Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah)

        Awf bin Malik Al-Ashja’ee said that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) during the Battle of Tabuk said to him: “….There will be Hudna (turce) between you and Bani Al-Asfar (refers to the Romans). Then, they will deceive you (break the truce) and will march against you under eighty banners and each banner will have ten thousand (soldiers).” (Bukhari, Ibn Majah)”

        Abu Umamah says that Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) said: ” There will be four Hudna (truces) between you and the Romans. The fourth (truce) will be mediated through a person who will be from the descendants of (Prophet) Aaron(Peace be upon him) (or ” from the descendants of Heracles “according to Nuaim bin Hammad) and will be upheld for seven years. The people asked: ‘O Messenger of Allah(Peace be upon him) , who will be the Imam of the people at the time? ‘ He said: ‘( Nuaim bin Hammad mentions ‘The Mahdi ‘) He will be from my progeny and will be forty years of age. His face will be a shining star and he will have a small black spot on his right cheek. He will wear two Qutwaaniataan cloaks as if he is a man from the Israelites. He will reign for 20 years, extract the treasures, and conquer the cities of Shirk (Polytheism).” (Tabrani, Nuaim bin Hammad’s Kitab Al-Fitan)

        Roman Muslim alliance attacking the land of Turk (Russia) and Iran:
        Yunus bin Saif Al-Khulani said: ” You will reconcile with the Romans through a reconciliation treaty. Then, together, you will invade the (lands of the) Turks and Kerman (a region currently in Iran) and Allah will conquer them for you…” (Nuaim ibn Hammad’s Kitab al-Fitan)

        Attack on Iran and possibly on Russia, China by the Arab Roman coalition before the final battle:
        Abdullah bin Masud said that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said : “Between the Muslims and the Romans, there will be a Hudna (truce) and reconciliation treaty to the extent that they will fight together an enemy for Romans (Possibly Russia, China) and they will split the war acquisitions. Then, the Romans with the Muslims will invade Persia (Iran). The Romans will say: Split with us the war booties (spoils) like we did. So, Muslims will split with the Romans the war booties and children of Polytheists. The Roman will say: Split what you got of the (Persian) Muslim children. The Muslims will say: We cannot split with you the the children of Muslims. … The Romans will invade and take over all of AshSham (Syria), except Damascus and Ma’taq mountain near Homs (in Syria) where Muslims will keep their children. Victory will be withheld until one third of the Muslims dies, one third flees and one third remains fighting….” (Nuaim bin Hammad’s Kitab al-Fitan).

        Ka’b said: “…You will enter into a reconciliation treaty with them for 10 years… You and the Romans will invade an enemy (located) behind Constantinople (Todays Turkey). When you return for that invasion, you will see Constantinople… Then, you and they will invade Al-Kufa (Shia city in Iraq) and cause devastation to it … Then, you and the Romans together will invade some of the people of the East…” (Nuaim ibn Hammad’s Kitab al-Fitan)
        An enemy located behind Constantinople (Istanbul) is Russia.

        Roman Arab joint attack on Iran
        Abdullah bin Masud said that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said : ” Between the Muslims and the Romans, there will be a Hudna (truce) and reconciliation treaty to the extent that they will fight together against their enemy (Possibly Russia and China) and they (Muslims & Romans) will split the war acquisitions. Then, the Romans with the Muslims will invade Persia (Iran).” (Nuaim ibn Hammad’s Kitab al-Fitan)

        Destruction of Al-Kufa a major Shia city in Iraq by an alliance of Romans & Arabs.
        Ka’b, speaking about the Romans, said: “……then you shall make an pact with them (the Romans), then you and they shall attack Al-Kufa , and cause destruction.” (Nuaim bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan, p. 296)
        Hakeem Ibn Umair said: “…then the Romans will request a pact, and in this pact is Al-Kufa’s destruction…..” (Nuaim bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan, p. 268)

        The Final battle between the Arabs and the Romans armageddon (Al-Malhama Al Qubra)
        Abu Huraira narrates that Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) said:
        “The Hour (of Resurrection) will not come until the Romans land in Al-A’maq (valleys in Antioch, southern Turkey) or in Dabiq (a plain near Aleppo, Syria). An army consisting of the best of the people of the Earth (an international Muslim army) at that time will come out of Medina (in Saudi Arabia) to face them.

        When they will arrange themselves in ranks, the Romans will say: ‘ Do not stand between us and those (Christian Converts to Islam) who were taken away from amongst us. Let us fight with them ‘ ; and the Muslims will say: ‘No! by Allah, we will not stand aside and let you fight our brothers.’

        They will then fight. A third (of the Muslim army) will be defeated (& run away), and Allah will never forgive them. A third (of the Muslim army) will be killed and they will be regarded as the best martyrs in the eyes of Allah. A third (of the Muslim army) will conquer and they do not get affected by Fitna (tribulations). They will conquer Constantinople.

        While the Muslims are busy distributing the spoils (booty) of war, after hanging their swords by the olive trees, Satan will shout: ‘The Anti-Christ has taken your place among your family (or in your land).’ The Muslims will then come out, but will find out that it is not true. And when they arrive to Al-Sham (Damascus or Syria), he (Anti-Christ) will come out. While they (Muslims) are preparing to fight him, and drawing up their ranks, prayer time will come and then, Jesus the son of Mary will descend and lead (or join) them in prayer. When Allah’s enemy (Anti-Christ) sees him (Jesus), it will dissolve just as the salt dissolves in water. If Jesus were to leave him (Anti-Christ) alone, he (Anti-Christ) would melt to death anyway, but Allah will have him (Anti-Christ) killed by his (Jesus’) hand, and he (Jesus) will show the Muslims his (Anti-Christ’s) blood on his (Jesus’) spear.” (Sahih Muslim)

        Yusayr bin Jabir said, “A red wind (or storm) erupted in the city of Kufa. Afterwards, a man came shouting and repeating the same words, ‘O Abdullah bin Mas’ud! the Hour has come.’ He (Yusayr) then said that he stood up after he was leaning (on his side) and said, ” ‘ The Hour (of Resurrection) will not come until people will not be able to divide inheritance, nor rejoice over booty’. Pointing toward Al-Sham (Syria), he said: ‘An enemy will gather forces against the Muslims, and the Muslims will gather forces against them.’ A companion asked: ‘Do you mean the Romans ?’ He said: ‘Yes, and at that time, there will be fierce fighting. The Muslims will send a battalion (or brigade) to fight to death, and not return unless they are victorious. They will fight until night intervenes, neither side will be victorious, and the detachment will perish. (On the second day) The Muslims will send another battalion (or brigade) to fight to death, and not return unless they are victorious. They will fight until night intervenes, neither side will be victorious, and the detachment will perish. (On the third day) The Muslims will send another battalion (or brigade) to fight to death, and not return unless they are victorious. They will fight until night intervenes, neither side will be victorious, and the detachment will perish. On the fourth day, the remaining Muslims will go to fight, and Allah will make their enemy be defeated. This will be a battle the like of which has never been seen, to the extent that even birds flying (above the battle field) will not pass without falling down dead. Out of a family of one hundred, only one man will survive. So, how could he rejoice over any war booty or divide any inheritance? While they are doing this, they will hear of an even bigger calamity: they will hear a scream amongst them that the Dajjal (Anti-Christ) has appeared among their families that they left behind. They will discard what they have in their hands and proceed. They will send ten horsemen as an expedition force. The Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) said, ‘I know their names and their fathers name and the colors of their horses. They will be the best horsemen on the face of Earth.’ ” (Sahih Muslim)

        In conclusion we have seen the Saudi England truce in the past against the Ottomans and then Saudi Europe/USA truce against the Soviet Union and Iran also to this day Saudi Arabia is maintaining the Alliance with the United States and Europe. This is the truce prophesied by the prophet. Iran Russia are relentlessly trying to break this Arab Roman truce by orchestrating false flag operation against USA and Europe then blame it on Saudi Arabia. Imran Hussain identifies Russia as Romans. So, his conclusion will be the Russians and the Iranians are attacking Russia and the Shia city Al-Kufa in Iraq? The land of Turk is Russia and Kerman is in Iran. So according Imran Hussain Russian and the Muslims from Iran are attacking Russia and Iran. This hadis is talking about IRAN and another common enemy which must be Russia China or both. Now, according to Imran Hussain if Russia becomes the Roman and Iran become the Arabs then you can find in this prophesy that Iran and Russia are attacking Iran and Russia.

    • How do we identify the Romans:
      Al-Mustawrid reported: He said in front of Amr ibn al-‘As that he heard the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, say, “The Hour will be established while the Romans are the majority of people.” Amr said, “Be careful what you say.” He said, “I have said what I heard from the Messenger of Allah.” Amr said, “If the Prophet said that, indeed, there are four good qualities in them: they are the most forbearing of people in tribulation, they are the quickest to recover after a calamity, they are the most eager to return after a retreat, and they are good to the poor, the orphan, and the vulnerable. Their fifth quality is good and beautiful: they are the best at stopping the oppression of their kings.”(Sahih Muslim)
      QUESTION: Do we see these qualities of Democracy, human right, Social security system etc in Imran Hussein’s Orthodox Russia? NO we can see these qualities in all over Europe in USA, Australia Canada etc.
      Nu’aym ibn Hammad narrated from Ibn Muhayriz that he said: “The Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) said: “Persia (Iran) will only take one or two thrusts, and then there will be no Persia after that. But the Romans will have many generations: whenever one generation goes, another one will take their place.” (Nuaim bin Hammad’s book Fitan)
      And their most recent manifestations are undoubtedly the United States of America, and the European Union. With the inevitable decline of America, the European Union will take on a more prominent role.
      Today Saudi Arabia will not make a truce with Greece to attack their common enemy because Greece is a weak country although they are Roman. Saudi Arabian choice would be USA and Europe against their common enemy Iran and Russia.

    • Quran stated about a Roman Persian war where the Romans were defeated and soon they would be victorious against the Persians.Here is a hadis where you will find the verse of the Quran and its implication.
      Abu Sa’id reported: On the day of the battle of Badr, the Romans were victorious over the Persians and the believers were pleased by that. Allah had revealed, “The Romans were defeated in the nearest land, but they will be victorious after their defeat in a few years. To Allah belongs the matter before and after, and on that day the believers will rejoice,” (30:1-4). Thus, the believers rejoiced at the victory of the Romans over the Persians” Source: Sunan al-Tirmidhī 2935
      The hadis talks about a truce between the Romans and the Arabs against their common enemy Iran and Russia. The Russians are Turkic/Mongolian trice of Gog and Magog. It doesn’t matter whether they follow orthodox Christianity or Islam. Russians have a different DNA than the Europeans and adopting Orthodox Christianity will not change their DNA. There are many orthodox Christians in Indonesia , In the middle East and many parts of the world and they are not Romans because they are a different race.

      • Hi Hassan not quite right on russia.
        The southern states definitiely look like “gog” territoty, but the northern part esp st petersburg is orthodox christian.Putin is trying to be peter the great and reclaim the lands for christendom as he understands it.

        I’m expecting a split within russia.Ukraine has always been one of those buffer zone used to be called khazaria and was attamped to be conquered many times in milennia by both the orthodox church and muslims,so their solution was to adopt judaism.
        True as far as 700AD from historical records. (about 100 after mohamad)

  6. There are some ‘gems’ from Imran Nazar Hossein’s recent article:

    “While this essay does not provide an Islamic eschatological description of events that will occur subsequent to the conquest of Constantinople, we can anticipate that such a conquest of that city would make it possible for the true world of Islam, which is faithful to the Qur’ān, to return the Cathedral of Hagia Sophia to the Orthodox Christian world. Indeed the return to the Orthodox Christian world of that Cathedral which was shamefully, disgracefully and sinfully converted to a Masjid by the conquering Ottoman Sultān Muhammad Fātih, would seal an alliance between the community of true followers of Jesus (عليه السلام)with the community of true followers of Prophet Muhammad (صلي الله عليه و سلم). It would be at that time that a strategically important prophecy in the Qur’ān would be fulfilled, and there would be nothing that the deaf, dumb and blind die-hard supporters of the imperial Ottoman so-called Islamic State can do to prevent it. Allah Most High has declared that, in time to come, a Christian people would be closest in love and affection to Muslims, and this essay concludes that the Orthodox Christian world would fulfill that prophecy in the Qur’ān despite all the efforts made by that Ottoman Empire over a period of almost 600 years, to sabotage that End-time friendship and alliance between these two religious communities.” [Source:

    • This link is more of a political piece than a religious one and not much to comment upon except the following:

      Our first Islamic eschatological conclusion is that the coming Great War will result in the destruction of modern western civilization in such wise that what remains of the west after the Great War will play no further role in world affairs.

      The West will actually bounce back from the devastation caused on them by Russia and the Sahabi was very surprised as to how this would happen but then he accepted it and narrated four good qualities of the Romans.

      Abū Hurairah reported many Ahadīth from Allah’s Messenger and one of them was this: The Last Hour will not come until the two warring parties confront each other and there is a large-scale massacre amongst them, and they both belong to the same religious calling.

      Imran Hossein refers this to the coming Russian/Western war but his may have already happened (WW1 and WW2).

      such Muslims would be recognized to have become a part of that Judeo-Christian alliance, and to have thus lost their religious identity as Muslims (al-Māidah, 5:51)

      Basically he is making takfeer of the Muslims who will make alliance with the West against the Russians. I covered this in the Mahdi book:

      • This is just crazy. Imran Nazar Hossein first changes the identity of the Romans and then gives a happy ending with the Russians whereas the Hadiths mention that after the Muslims and the Romans fight a joint war against Russia, they (the Muslims and the Romans) will confront each other in the greatest war the history has ever seen. Imran completely ignores these parts of the Hadiths and paints a rosy picture of a perfect Muslim-Russian unity.

        One wonders whether he is genuinely in love with Iran and Russia – perhaps being a secret anti-Sunni – or whether he is on their payroll. I don’t see any other option and I feel he may be a shia in disguise and Allah knows best.

    • Turks in Turkey, Iranian Safavids, Russian Mongolian Korean are the tribe of Gog and Magog.
      Abd Al Razzaq transmitted from Qatada that Gog and Magog consist of 22 tribes. Dhul Qarnine built a wall, holding back 21 of them . One tribe had got out on a raid and remained outside the wall. They are called Turks because they were left (Turikat) outside the wall.” (Musannaf Abd Al-Razzaq)

      Ibn Mardawaith also narrates , “Turks are brigades of Gog and Magog. They went out in conquest when Dhul Qarnine erected the barrier and they stayed outside.”

      Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “The Hour will not be established until you fight with the Turks; people with small eyes, red faces, and flat noses. Their faces will look like shields coated with leather. The Hour will not be established till you fight with people whose shoes are made of hair.” (Sahih Bukhari)

  7. In my view its just simple ,Romans means people inhabiting in the region of Capital Rome ,During Roman era the region under the empire was under the Capital Rome and under its rule/Obeying to the Capital Rome. But Now a days There is no Roman Empire but Rome Exists today as Rome city in Italy and many people/Nations Obey to it for one thing ie. to Roman Catholic church(& Vatican City).

    • Rome is still a VERY powerful entity.Not just the religion but they control most of the world corporations.
      examples…… VIRGIN media. microsoft(bill gates) windows XP(chi rho), 7, 10/PAYPAL(OR IS THAT PAPAL?)

  8. Pingback: Proof Armageddon Will Happen, part 2 – Armageddon Will Happen

  9. Pingback: True Prophecies of Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) | Qur'anic misconceptions addressed

  10. Pingback: Islamic identity of Rûm (Rome) and Romans II | Qur'anic misconceptions addressed

  11. Assalamu alaikum Abu Rahma.
    Can common enemy be other than Russia? They lost 30k soldiers against a weak side and are not impressive overall. Can it be Israel?

    • Wa’alaykumusSalaam, even though the numbers may be exaggerated as war propaganda but your point is valid. The common enemy is located behind Rome (Hadith wordings) and Russia borders with Europe. Israel and the West are allies. Moreover, the Muslims and the Romans (West) will ally against the common enemy (Russia) because the common enemy would have caused severe and lethal destruction to the Romans. A Russia-West war is prophesied where the West will suffer so much that they will look to the Muslims for alliance. Both of these parties have nukes; perhaps they will be used at a totally unexpected time that the Romans wouldn’t know what hit them and won’t get a chance to strike back. Allah knows best.

    • The common enemy of the Arabs and the Romans are Iran, Russia and China. Israel is not the enemy of the Romans but the Arabs. So Israel is not the common enemy. The hadis talks about the ARAB ROMAN truce. It is necessary to emphasis on this point because the Malhama will be between the Arabs and the Romans, the venue of the war is also in the Arab land. Once we start saying the truce between the “Muslims and the Romans” then it becomes confusing. 1.8 billion Muslims worldwide are not going to make a truce with the Roman race. More precisely the Arabs will make a truce with the Romans. Saudi Roman truce against the invading Ottoman Turks, Saudi Roman truce against the Soviet Union, Saddam Hussein Truce with the Romans against Iran etc. Romans will trick/bluff the Arabs after every truce. The last truce between the Arabs and the Romans will result in attacking Russia (Through Turkey), Iran, Al-Kufa, and possibly China. The enemy behind Constantinople is Russia which has invaded Ukraine. At this time the Arabs are neutral in this matter. The Romans will request a pact to the Arabs and together they will attack their common enemy. First Russia and then Iran. If you look at the map then Ukraine is just behind Constantinople.

    • Interesting prophectic times indeed.
      Have you been paying attention?
      The great monarch of catholic prophecy is already here.Born and bred in england!!!!
      Not that the english will like him that much.

      of course you didn’t think that game of thrones was just a fantasy did you? masters at subliminal messaging which we don’t take at all kindly to.

      Well here’s a good one.Putin, don’t do it.
      I’m sure you’re familiar with the hiram abiff legend, DO NOT be the third ruffian.We will quite literally unleash hell on earth in our demise.

  12. Fascinating discussion and points. I don’t agree with the harsh dismissive attitude toward Russia being the Romans though. There is a case for it. Moscow has historically been called the Third Rome. Princess Sophia Palaiologina of Byzantium married Russian Ivan III. Ahadith also mention the conquest of Constantinople after the war with the Romans. Russia desires Istanbul for religious and strategic reasons. I mean you could say the Muslims will wrest it from NATO control instead of Russia. All in all it’s a very interesting topic with multiple possibilities. WAllahu Alam.

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