I have been studying Hadiths related to end times and their signs passionately since 12 years, at the time of writing this piece, and what I can say with confidence is that there is consensus of the Muslims over more than 95% of them in terms of the sequence while the remaining 5%, or less, are based on interpretation. The chronology, at least the one on which there is consensus, is essential to know and learn because some people in today’s time misrepresent Hadiths and present Dajjal as appearing before the Mahdi. This is a lie that must be strictly refuted and shunned by the Muslims and anyone presenting such dodgy sequences should be called out and avoided when it comes to learning one’s religion.
Below is a chronology of events, that I believe to be most accurate, prophesied by the Prophet (ﷺ) till the last day. The list is not comprehensive and includes only the major ones from among the major signs. If you would like to know more about any of these in terms of the sign itself or as to why I put it in the stated sequence, please leave a comment below.
Minor signs such as loss of morals, increase in crimes and immorality, indecency etc. have continued to happen from centuries back and so I have not included them in the list. Below is a list of the major signs in order:
- Passing away of the Prophet (ﷺ)
- Conquest of Arabia by the Muslims
- Conquest of Persia by the Muslims
- Conquest of Constantinople by the Muslims
- Attack of Mongols on the Muslims
The emergence of the Mahdi is the first big sign before the major events unfold. Following are signs related to the emergence of the Mahdi:
- Romans (the West) would be oppressing the Muslims
- Euphrates will uncover gold over which there will be a big war
- Iraq, Syria, and Egypt may be conquered by the Romans before the emergence of the Mahdi (perhaps during this war – not explicitly stated in Hadiths). It is disputed today whether these invasions took place in the 19th and 20th centuries. It is my view that these have already taken place.
- Romans may invade Syria somewhere around this time.
- King/ruler of Arabia would die (natural death) and there would be civil war for power
- People would gather around the Mahdi to give pledge to him and he would end the civil war and take hold of power
- Army would be sent from Shaam to fight him (it could be a Shami army under occupation of Romans)
- At the same time, army or armies from the east would depart towards Makkah to assist the Mahdi. They might take over lands along the way (there are Hadiths on this line but they are not authentic)
- Around all this war and chaos, the common enemy of the Muslims and Romans (the West) would attack the Romans. This common enemy appears to be Russia
- Due to this, Muslims would have a sigh of relief and be able to get their act together. Mahdi would take back the Muslim countries under occupation and fight the anti-Sunni forces in Iraq and Syria
- Romans would make peace with the Muslims against the common enemy and fight and invade it together
Points 7 to 12 would take place within the same year. It would be like WW3 where initially Muslims would be at a setback but then the battle ground would move to the same area as WW1 and WW2.
There is no mention of what the situation of Israel/Palestine would be. Since Isa (عليه السلام) would kill Dajjal at Ludd (in modern day Israel), it appears that Mahdi would reach a compromise with them and allow them some areas while allowing sufficient independence and freedom to the Palestinians (perhaps like a two state solution). Allah knows best.
- After the Muslims and Romans invade the common enemy, they will fight it out against each other which Hadiths call the great massacre (ملحمة الكبرى) and Christians call the Armageddon.
- Muslims would defeat the Romans and chase them all the way to Rome (and take it over). They would take Constantinople and Rome both. If Constantinople will also be taken back by the Muslims, this means that Romans would invade it when they come to face the Muslims at Armageddon
- After this war, Dajjal would appear
- During the time of Dajjal, Muslims would be at war with India. This might start after Dajjal appears or may even start at the same time as Armageddon and continue all the way till Isa (عليه السلام) returns
- Isa (عليه السلام) would descend in Damascus and kill the Dajjal while he would try to escape through Ludd
- Every Christian and Jew would embrace Islam and those who do not, would escape to join Yajuj and Majuj
- After Dajjal is killed, Yajuj and Majuj would attack (not necessarily straight away but could be after many years)
In all of this, China and the East are quiet. They would stay on the side and simply watch it out for the major part. They may have skirmishes here and there and among themselves but would not be involved in all-out attacks. After all of this is done, they would attack and they appear to be Yajuj and Majuj.
- Yajuj and Majuj would be killed by Allah (ﷻ) and their bodies eaten by birds
- The sun would rise from the west and the doors of repentance would close. Whole world would embrace Islam but those who were not Muslim before would not benefit from it
Scholars differ on the sequence for this event; most put it in this sequence while some consider it to happen before Dajjal while others are of the view that it may happen after the killing of Dajjal but before the emergence of Yajuj and Majuj. My personal view is inclined towards where I have put it but it is very difficult to justify either position. Allah knows best.
- Beast from the earth would emerge
- A smoke would come out that would kill every believer (a Muslim rapture)
- Only the most evil of the people would remain on the earth who would fornicate like donkeys
- The Day of Judgment would come any time
When the sequence is presented, one must not assume that all these events would take place very soon one after the other. In the grand scale of things, they do take place soon but from our worldly perspective, one step may be followed up by the other by a difference of a year or a decade or a century.
Allah knows best.